Salmo trutta (brown trout), Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)
Popular angling targets, as much for their easy proximity to the major population centres and the Northern Hemisphere fixation of many Australian inland anglers, as for their fighting and eating qualities. Trout are widespread throughout much of the South East Australian mainland and Tasmania.
Brown trout in the form of fertilised eggs were introduced to Australia in Tasmania in 1864 from the United Kingdom following unsuccessful attempts in 1841 and 1862. From the original Tasmanian stock, fish were stocked into many of the cooler waters in mainland Australia. By the end of the nineteenth century trout had been introduced to virtually all waters catchments capable of holding them.
Rainbow trout which are native to North America were introduced to New South Wales from New Zealand (where thay had been previously established) in 1894. Acclimatisation societies then transferred the fish into Victoria and Tasmania.
Trout have been implicated in the decline of several native fish species, notably Galaxias fuscus and Galaxias olidus as well as the spotted tree frog Litoria spenceri. In Tasmania, trout are now virtually the only species found in many waters and freshwater fisheries management seems to be focused entirely upon the management of trout.